Coronary Risk Factors


Some of the most common coronary risk factors are the following.

known coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease. Coronary artery disease also called coronary heart disease or heart disease, is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States and post-menopausal status without hormone replacement.(for women) and obesity are considered to be major risk factors.

Hypertension (high blood pressure), Smoking and abnormal lipids,especially low HDL (high density lipoproteins) ( < 50 mg/dL) and/or elevated triglycerides ( > 400 mg/dL). Diet deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Are considered to be Intermediate risk factors.

While family history of coronary artery disease, homeostatic risks factors and family history of coronary artery disease. Are considered to be additional risk factors.

Some risk factors that can be changed are:


Smoking increases both the chance of developing coronary artery disease and the chance of dying from it. Smokers are two to four times more likely than are non-smokers to die of sudden heart attack. They are more than twice as likely as non-smokers to have a heart attack. They are also more likely to die within an hour of a heart attack.

High cholesterol

Dietary sources of cholesterol are meat, eggs, and other animal products. The body also produces it. Age, sex, heredity, and diet affect one's blood cholesterol. Total blood cholesterol is considered high at levels above 240 mg/dL and borderline at 200-239 mg/dL. High-risk levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) begin at 130-159 mg/dL, depending on other risk factors. The risk of developing coronary artery disease increases steadily as blood cholesterol levels increase above 160 mg/dL. When a person has other risk factors, the risk multiplies.


High blood pressure makes the heart work harder and weakens it over time. It increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, and congestive heart failure. A blood pressure of 140 over 90 or above is considered high. As the numbers rise, high blood pressure goes from Stage 1 (mild) to Stage 4 (very severe). In combination with obesity, smoking, high cholesterol, or diabetes, high blood pressure raises the risk of heart attack or stroke several times.

Lack of physical activity

Lack of exercise increases the risk of coronary artery disease. Even modest physical activity, like walking, is beneficial if done regularly.

Diabetes mellitus

The risk of developing coronary artery disease is seriously increased for diabetics. More than 80% of diabetics die of some type of heart or blood vessel disease.


Excess weight increases the strain on the heart and increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease even if no other risk factors are present. Obesity increases blood pressure and blood cholesterol and can lead to diabetes.



Stress and anger

Some scientists believe that stress and anger can contribute to the development of coronary artery disease and increase the blood's tendency to form clots (thrombosis). Stress and the mental and physical reaction to life's challenges, increases the heart rate and blood pressure and can injure the lining of the arteries. Evidence shows that anger increases the risk of dying from heart disease. The risk of heart attack is more than double after an episode of anger.


A healthy lifestyle can help prevent coronary artery disease and help keep it from progressing. A heart-healthy lifestyle includes eating right, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, no smoking, moderate drinking, no recreational drugs, controlling hypertension, and managing stress. Cardiac rehabilitation programs are excellent to help prevent recurring coronary problems for people who are at risk and who have had coronary events and procedures.

Maintain a desirable body weight

About one quarter of all Americans are overweight and nearly one-tenth are obese, according to the Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. People who are 20% or more over their ideal body weight have an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease. Losing weight can help reduce total and LDL cholesterol, reduce triglycerides, and boost HDL cholesterol. It may also reduce blood pressure. Eating right and exercising are two key components of losing weight.

Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise can lower blood pressure, help control weight, and increase HDL ("good") cholesterol. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend moderate to intense aerobic exercise lasting about 30 minutes four or more times per week for maximum heart health. Three 10-minute exercise periods are also beneficial. Aerobic exercise--activities such as walking, jogging, and cycling--uses the large muscle groups and forces the body to use oxygen more efficiently. It can also include everyday activities such as active gardening, climbing stairs, or brisk housework. People with coronary artery disease or risk factors should consult a doctor before beginning an exercise program.

Exercise Programming

After having the client complete a thorough health history questionnaire and having them obtain a medical clearance and physicianís consent form if necessary. A three-minute step test should be giving during the initial evaluation to check the clientís general heart rate fitness. Great concern must be giving to safety throughout both the fitness program as well as closely monitoring heart rate during and after any giving work out if any Coronary Risk Factors exist.


Designing Resistance Training Programs, second edition

Author; Steven J. Fleck & William J. Kraemer

The Personal Trainers Handbook

Author; Teri S. Oírienís Diagnosic) Encyclopedia of Medicine/Author: Lori De Milto) Manbir Singh)